The Arctic summer coincides with the European one. Although the temperatures even during this season are quite low here, the sea is open for navigation. The cruises to the Arctic start in April, when the polar night slowly transforms into the polar day. The end of the cruise season comes in September when the polar night once again overtakes its reign.
During the summer solstice (approximately 21st of June) the sun shines high in the sky on the North Pole, at the point of 23.5 ° over the horizon. This is the zenith of the polar day. From this date to the day of the equinox in September the sun slowly moves towards the horizon, before completely setting down and leaving the North Pole in absolute darkness. But in June the sun still shares its' warmth with this distant part of the Earth, so usually it's quiet warm here.
By July and August in most regions of the Arctic the surface completely frees itself from the snow and absorbs up to 80% of solar energy. Inland areas of Greenland, as well as in the spring, enjoy plenty of sunny days and receive the largest amount of solar energy, compared to other Arctic regions. The average temperature in July (the warmest summer month) in the Arctic basin varies from 0 to 1 °C near the coast up to 6-10 °C in continental areas.
In September and October the days rapidly grow shorter, and in the northern parts of our planet the sun already has completely disappeared from the horizon. The air temperature drops. The sea starts covering with ice. Fresh snow falls on the ice and reflects the largest amount of still penetrating sunlight. In November, in most of the Arctic winter is already in full sway, and a small amount of solar energy which is received in the edges of the region comes almost unnoticed.
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